Agwaetiti. ala franc

Agwaetiti. ala franc

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Ọdịnaya

  1. Ọnọdụ ala
  2. Otu esi esi ebe ahụ
  3. Ihu igwe
  4. Vidiyo
  5. Ndị mmadụ
  6. Ọdịdị
  7. Foto

Ọnọdụ ala

Franz Josef Land na map

Franz Josef Land bụ agwaetiti dị n'Oké Osimiri Arctic, n'ebe ugwu Europe. Akụkụ nke ihe onwunwe pola nke Russia, bụ akụkụ nke mpaghara Primorsky nke mpaghara Arkhangelsk.
Àgwàetiti ahụ nwere àgwàetiti 192. Ngụkọta mpaghara bụ 16,134 km². E kewara ya n'ime akụkụ atọ: nke ọwụwa anyanwụ, nke dịpụrụ adịpụ na ndị ọzọ site na Strait Austria, na nnukwu agwaetiti Wilczek Land (2.0 puku km²), Graham Bell (1.7 puku km²); Central otu - n'etiti Strait nke Austria na British ọwa, ebe kasị dị ịrịba ìgwè nke agwaetiti dị, na n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ otu - n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ nke British ọwa, nke na-agụnye kasị n'àgwàetiti nke dum akipelago - George Land (. 2.9 puku km²).

Elu nke ọtụtụ agwaetiti nke Franz Josef Land Archipelago dị ka ala dị larịị. Nkezi elu ruru 400-490 m (ebe kachasị elu nke agwaetiti bụ 620 m).

N'ụsọ oké osimiri dị n'ebe ọdịda anyanwụ Cape Fligeli na Rudolf Island bụ ebe ugwu Russia na Franz Josef Land. Cape Mary Harmsworth bụ mpaghara ọdịda anyanwụ nke agwaetiti ahụ, Lamon Island bụ nke ndịda, Cape Olney na Graham Bell Island bụ akụkụ ọwụwa anyanwụ.

Otu esi esi ebe ahụ

Ebe ọ bụ na Franz Josef Land bụ akuku mmadụ, ọ nweghị njikọ njem nke ọma na ya. Kemgbe oge Soviet Union, e nweela ọtụtụ ọdụ ụgbọ elu n'àgwàetiti ndị ahụ bụ́ ndị na-eje ozi bụ́ isi agha. Mana ugbu a, nla na-agba ha, dị ka ọtụtụ ọdụ ụgbọ elu Arctic.

A na-eme njem nlegharị anya na njem nlegharị anya na Franz Josef Land n'ụgbọ mmiri na-agbaji site na Murmansk. N'otu oge ahụ, imeri ebe dị anya site na nsọtụ kọntinent ahụ ruo n'àgwàetiti ndịda mbụ nke agwaetiti nwere ike were ihe karịrị otu ụbọchị.

Ihu igwe

Ọnọdụ ihu igwe dị na Franz Josef Land na-abụkarị arctic. Ọ na-eju oyi mgbe niile ebe a. Otú ọ dị, oge okpomọkụ ka dị iche na oyi. N'ọnwa June, a na-edobe oke okpomọkụ na Hayes Island wee rute +1.6 Celsius. N'otu oge ahụ, nkezi ụkpụrụ nke okpomọkụ okpomọkụ na-agbakọta na -1.2 Celsius. A na-eji Jenụwarị mara okpomọkụ nke -24 Celsius C, ma mgbe ụfọdụ enwere ntu oyi ka njọ. Ifufe dị n'ime agwaetiti nwere ike iru ọsọ ruru 40 m/s.

Vidiyo

Ndị mmadụ

Enweghị ọnụ ọgụgụ na-adịgide adịgide. Ọnụ ọgụgụ nwa oge gụnyere ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị na ụlọ ọrụ nyocha, ndị na-eche nche nke FSB na ndị agha nke ụlọ ọrụ nchebe ikuku nke na-ebu agha nchebe nke Russia si n'ebe ugwu.

Na ókèala Hayes Island na 2005, dị ka akụkọ akụkọ si kwuo, e meghere ụlọ ọrụ n'ebe ugwu nke ụwa "Arkhangelsk 163100", nke kwesịrị ịrụ ọrụ maka awa 1, site na elekere 10 ruo 11 na Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday na Friday. . Dị ka nke September 2013, n'okpuru index 163100, post ụlọ ọrụ "Arkhangelsk - banyere. Heiss Franz Josef Land, nke na-emeghe site na elekere 10 nke ụtụtụ ruo elekere 11 nke ụtụtụ na Wednesde.

Ọdịdị

Osisi na fauna. Mkpuchi ahịhịa na-achịkwa mosses na lichens. E nwekwara pola poppy, saxifrage, grains, polar willow. N'ime anụ mammals, e nwere pola bear na obere oge fox polar. N'ime mmiri ndị gbara agwaetiti ndị ahụ gburugburu, e nwere akara, akara ajị agba, akara ụbọ akwara, walruses, narwhals na whale ọcha. Ọtụtụ nnụnụ (ụdị 26) bụ obere auks, guillemots, guillemots, kittiwake nkịtị, gull ọcha, glaucous gull, wdg, nke na-etolite ebe a na-akpọ ebe nnụnụ na-achị n'oge okpomọkụ. Enwere ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri n'agwaetiti Alexandra Land na Rudolf Island. E.T. Krenkel Geophysical Observatory (ebe 1957) dị na Hayes Island.
Ọtụtụ n'ime agwaetiti ndị a na-ekpuchi glaciers, n'ebe ndị na-adịghị na ha enwere ọtụtụ ọdọ mmiri, ọtụtụ n'ime afọ na-ekpuchi ice. Permafrost.
Ọdọ mmiri. Ọtụtụ ọdọ mmiri ka na-enweghị aha, ndị na-esonụ nwetara onwe ha designations: Cosmic, Ice, Small, Northern, Duck, Shirshova.
Igwe mmiri. Ọmụmụ nke glaciation nke agwaetiti malitere karịsịa na mmalite nke International Geophysical Year. N'ihi afọ abụọ nke ọrụ ubi, ndị sonyere na njem njem Russia nke Academy of Sciences nke USSR nwetara nchịkọta mbụ nke glaciology nke mpaghara ahụ, nke e bipụtara na mkpokọta mkpokọta "Glaciation of Franz Josef Land" ndị edemede M. G. Grosvald et al., 1973). Ọ nwere nkọwa nke morphology nke glacial complexes, glacial ihu igwe, ice guzobere zones, okpomọkụ ọchịchị, Ọdịdị na tectonics nke glaciers. Ọkachamara glaciologist MG Grovald na ndị ya na ha na-emekọ ihe na nke mbụ mere nkwubi okwu dị mkpa na glaciation FJL na-ebelata: n'ime afọ 30 gara aga, agwaetiti a tụfuru nkezi nke 3.3 km³ nke ice kwa afọ. Tupu ọrụ ndị a, ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị ụwa nwere echiche na FJL glaciation na-eguzo, ma ọ bụ ọbụna na-eto eto.

Glaciers na-ekpuchi 87% nke agwaetiti. Ọkpụrụkpụ ice na-esi na 100 ruo 500 m. Glaciers na-agbada n'oké osimiri na-emepụta ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu nke iceberg. A na-ahụ glaciation kacha kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ na ndịda ọwụwa anyanwụ na n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ nke agwaetiti ọ bụla na agwaetiti n'ozuzu ya. Ịkpụpụta ice na-apụta naanị n'elu elu ụlọ ice. Igwe glaciers nke agwaetiti ahụ na-agbada ngwa ngwa, ma ọ bụrụ na ọnụ ọgụgụ mbibi ahụ a na-ahụ anya na-aga n'ihu, glaciation nke Franz Josef Land nwere ike ịla n'iyi n'ime afọ 300.

Foto

Njem njem na Franz Josef Land zutere anụ ọhịa bea
Site n'ike nke njem njem Austro-Hungarian, yana njem ndị Britain nke Lee Smith na Jackson, a na-ekpebikarị ọdịdị ala nke agwaetiti ahụ. Ugbu a ndị njem na-ewere Franz Josef Land dị ka ụdị mmiri mmiri na-aga n'osisi ahụ. Na 1898, njem Duke nke Abruzzo gara n'àgwàetiti Rudolf, ebe na 1900 Umberto Cagni mere njem sledge na ugwu wee mebie ndekọ nke latitude nke Nansen setịpụrụ. Otú ọ dị, mmeri a bịara na ọnụ ahịa dị elu - mmadụ atọ nke njem ahụ nwụrụ.
Njem ahụ malitere n'enweghị ihe ịga nke ọma - na Novaya Zemlya ụgbọ mmiri ahụ na-ekpochapụ nke ọma site na mmiri ozuzo. Naanị mgbe ụbọchị 130 nke ịkwọgharị mmanye gasịrị, ndị ọrụ ụgbọ mmiri ahụ hụrụ usoro nkume ndị ahụ. Ala mepere emepe nke Weyprecht na Payer bụ aha nke Emperor nke Austria-Hungary, Franz Josef.
Mgbe ahụ, ndị Briten mụrụ ihe gbasara agwaetiti ahụ nke ọma. Polar onye na-eme nchọpụta na onye na-ahụ maka ọdịdị ala Frederick Jackson rụrụ ọrụ na Franz Josef Land afọ atọ, site na 1894 ruo 1897. Njem njem a batara n'akụkọ ihe mere eme n'ihi ọnọdụ dị ịtụnanya. Na June 17, 1896, n'àgwàetiti Arctic na-enweghị onye bi, na Cape Flora, Jackson zutere onye ọbịbịa, nke nwere ntutu isi na ogologo ajị agba, yi uwe mwụda gbajiri agbaji. Onye ọbịa a tụgharịrị bụrụ nnukwu onye nyocha pola Nansen, onye hapụrụ ụgbọ mmiri ya Fram ihe karịrị otu afọ gara aga ma na-agbalị iru North Pole na sledge ya na onye enyemaka ya, onye nwere ahụmahụ skier na njem musher Hjalmar Johansen. Kedu onye maara ma Nansen gaara enwe ike ịlaghachi na mkpọsa ahụ, ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị maka nzukọ a magburu onwe ya ...
Ọ ga-adị ka ọ dịla anya e debere agwaetiti niile nke ụwa, oge nchọpụta mpaghara dị anya n'azụ, na satịlaịtị na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma nke njem nyocha. Agbanyeghị, n'oge na-adịbeghị anya, na Septemba 10, 2012, a chọtara agwaetiti ọhụrụ dị na Franz Josef Land wee depụta ya n'ihu ọha na Arctic. Obere eriri kpụrụ n'ime ahụ Northbrook Island wee kewaa ya ụzọ abụọ. Nke a bụ naanị otu n'ime eziokwu dị ịtụnanya sitere n'akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Franz Josef Land, otu agwaetiti dị omimi dị n'Oké Osimiri Arctic, bụ nke ndị njem na-agaghị enweta taa.
Kemgbe 2012, ókèala Franz Josef Land bụ akụkụ nke National Park Arctic Russia. Polar bear na walruses na-adị ka ndị nwe ebe a. Nnukwu ógbè nke nnụnụ mmiri na-akwaga akwu na mkpọda nkume na okwute - guillemots, guillemots, gulls ọcha. Ọnụnọ mmadụ bụ naanị ndị ọrụ ogige na ndị sayensị na ọdụ pola.

Nkume Rubini, Franz Josef Land

Njem njem na Franz Josef Land zutere walruses

Agwaetiti dị na Franz Josef Land Archipelago
Na 1913-1914, njem Russia nke Georgy Sedov mere oyi na Tikhaya Bay nke dịdebere Agwaetiti Hooker. Atụmatụ Sedov, dị ka nke njem Abruzzi gara aga, gụnyere iru Pole North. Ma ndị ọrụ ụgbọ mmiri na ụgbọ mmiri ahụ adịchaghị njikere maka ule siri ike dị otú ahụ. Mgbe oyi na-atụ, Sedov gbalịsiri ike iru osisi site na nkịta sled, na-akpọrọ naanị ndị ọrụ ụgbọ mmiri abụọ. Otú ọ dị, ugbua na mmalite nke mkpọsa ahụ, ọ dara ọrịa siri ike ma nwụọ na-ahapụghị ókè nke agwaetiti ahụ. Ndị ọrụ ụgbọ mmiri Sedov laghachiri na isi, ụgbọ mmiri ahụ "St. Foka" gara n'ụlọ Arkhangelsk. Ebe ọ bụ na mmanụ ụgbọala ahụ agwụla ogologo oge, ndị ọrụ ụgbọ mmiri ahụ kpebiri ịbịaru nso Cape Flora ka ha kwatuo ụlọ ndị ahụ fọdụrụ na njem Jackson maka nkụ. N’otu ebe ahụ Jackson zọpụtara Nansen afọ 18 gara aga, nzukọ ọrụ ebube ọzọ emeela ugbu a: “St. Fok banyere n'ụgbọ mmiri Albanov na onye na-akwọ ụgbọ mmiri Konrad, bụ naanị ndị fọdụrụ na njem polar Russia na ụgbọ mmiri St. Ana".
Franz Josef Land jikọtara agwaetiti 192 dị na ugwu Novaya Zemlya na ọwụwa anyanwụ Svalbard. Atụghị anya ịdị adị nke agwaetiti ahụ ruo 1873, a chọpụtakwara ya site na ohere dị ọcha. N'afọ 1872, n'isi mmalite nke onye na-ese geographer August Petermann, a haziri njem polar Austro-Hungarian n'okpuru nduzi nke Weyprecht na Payer. Peterman, dị ka ọtụtụ n'ime ndị ya na ya dịkọrọ ndụ, kwenyere na ịdị adị nke oke osimiri pola na-emeghe ma kwenye na ụzọ kachasị mfe iji nweta nnukwu latitudes dị n'etiti Svalbard na Novaya Zemlya. Maka njem ahụ, e wuru obere ụgbọ mmiri "Admiral Tegetthoff", nke nzube ya bụ ịgafe Novaya Zemlya site n'ebe ugwu na, ọ bụrụ na ọ ga-ekwe omume, ruo Bering Strait.
Njem njem njem anyị bụ ohere iji hụ ma nwee mmetụta akụkọ ihe mere eme nke mmeri nke Arctic, soro ụzọ ndị ọsụ ụzọ nke ala ugwu dị anya, mee nchọpụta ala nke gị ma nyochaa agwaetiti dị omimi site na oche nke ọmarịcha na ọgbara ọhụrụ. ụgbọ mmiri. Na onye maara ihe a aka aka nzukọ na-echere gị n'oge okpomọkụ na-abịa!

Njem njem na Franz Josef Land


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