Agha nke Rzhev noge Great Patriotic War

Agha nke Rzhev noge Great Patriotic War

Ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme kpughere ibe ndị a na-amaghị nke Agha Rzhev

Roman Shcherbenkov

Mwube nke ihe ncheta Rzhev nye onye agha Soviet dị nso n'obodo nta nke Khoroshevo, nke dị na mpaghara Tver, kpalitere mmasị ọha na eze n'ihe omume ọjọọ nke Great Patriotic War nke weere ọnọdụ na 1942-1943 na nso Rzhev. Anyị jụrụ Svetlana Gerasimova, Candidate of Historical Sciences, Onye isi nyocha nke Tver State United Museum, ka ọ gwa anyị banyere ihe Red Army ga-atachi obi n'afọ ndị ahụ. Ọ nọwo na-amụ ihe ndekọ ihe gbasara ihe omume ndị ahụ kemgbe afọ iri anọ ugbu a, ma bipụta akwụkwọ “Mgbuchapụ Rzhev. Mmeri Zhukov furu efu" (2009) na "Egburu m nso Rzhev. Ọdachi nke Monchalovsky "cauldron" (2016).

Svetlana Alexandrovna, ogologo oge ole ka ị na-eme nyocha banyere ọrụ ndị agha na mpaghara Rzhev-Vyazma dị egwu?

Svetlana Gerasimov: Ebe ọ bụ na mbubreyo 1970.

 

Akwụkwọ ya "Rzhev mgbuchapụ. Mmeri Zhukov furu efu" ị na-amalite na ajụjụ a: Agha nke Rzhev ọ bụ akụkọ ifo ma ọ bụ eziokwu? Azịza gị na-ekpughekwa ụfọdụ ihe nzuzo nke ihe omume ndị ahụ dị egwu na nnukwu.

Svetlana Gerasimova: N'uche nke m, ọrụ anọ bụ isi mkparị nke Red Army: Rzhev-Vyazemskaya, 1st Rzhev-Sychevskaya, 2nd Rzhev-Sychevskaya ( "Mars") - na 1942 na Rzhev-Vyazemskaya - na 1943, rụrụ na a strategically. akụkụ dị mkpa nke Soviet-German n'ihu, n'ezie dabara adaba n'echiche nke "agha". Ọ dị mkpa icheta na ha niile mere na ntụziaka Moscow. Ndị agha, dị ka a na-achị, nke ihu abụọ n'okpuru iwu kpọmkwem nke Headquarters of the Supreme High Command so na agha ndị Germany. Ihe mgbaru ọsọ bụ otu: imeri ndị agha nke Army Group Center, emi odude ke n'ókèala nke Rzhev-Vyazma bridgehead na-anọchi anya a ezigbo ihe ize ndụ na isi obodo nke Soviet Union.

Emechara ọrụ ahụ?

Svetlana Gerasimova: Ọrụ nke ichebe Moscow, nke e debere na Jenụwarị 1942, enwetara nke ọma na March 1943. Ya mere, agha ahụ, nke a na-akpọ Rzhevskaya, mgbe "aha" nke obere obodo Russia dịruru ọnwa 15. Mpaghara ya dị n'ihu dị egwu - site na 600-700 kilomita na mmalite nke 1942 ruo 530 kilomita na March 1943. N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ ọzọ, agha Rzhev abụghị maka otu obodo, ihe dị mkpa German bridgehead bụ mmiri mmiri. Ndị Germany mechara kpọọ ihe omume ndị a "ụzọ ọbara" - nkewa ha hapụrụ pasenti 50 ruo 80 nke ndị ọrụ ha ebe a, na iwu nke Army Group Center mechara chigharịa na Berlin na arịrịọ ịdọpụ ha n'okpuru Rzhev.

N'afọ ndị 1970 na 1980, ndị agha ahụ ka dị ndụ rọrọ nrọ banyere Ememe Ncheta Rzhev.

Mgbe ahụ kọwaa ihe mere e ji chefuo agha a na USSR?

Svetlana Gerasimova: N'ezie, n'oge Soviet, a na-ekpuchi ihe omume na mpaghara Rzhev-Vyazma salient. Na n'oge anyị, ukara agha akụkọ ihe mere eme na-egosi agha ọrụ na Central ngalaba nke Soviet-German n'ihu Jenụwarị 1942 na March 1943 na iberibe. Ihe e mesiri ike bụ ọrụ mkparị mbụ - Rzhev-Vyazemskaya. Enwere ike ịkọwa nke a site n'eziokwu na ọrụ nke ndị agha Soviet, n'agbanyeghị oke ha na oke ọnwụ ha na-efu na ike mmadụ, emezughị ihe mgbaru ọsọ ha. Ọ gaghị ekwe omume n'ikpeazụ imeri ndị agha nke Army Group Center na Rzhev-Vyazma bridgehead, n'ihi ya, ndị Soviet iwu na-ewere na ọrụ ndị a enweghị ihe ịga nke ọma. Ee, ndị Germany hapụrụ oghere ahụ n'onwe ha, ma ọ bụ kama nke ahụ, iwu Wehrmacht wepụrụ ha. Enwere ike iche na a na-akọwakwa ndabara nke arụmọrụ ndị a site n'eziokwu ahụ na ndị agha na ọrụ ndị a nyere iwu site n'aka ndị isi a ma ama nke Great Patriotic War - Zhukov na Konev. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, mkpochapụ nke ndị iro bridgehead fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ mgbidi nke isi obodo pụtara maka Moscow na-enweghị ihe ọ bụla na-enye nchebe ya.

A na-akpọ ọnụ ọgụgụ dị iche iche nke mfu anyị.

Svetlana Gerasimova: Arụ ọrụ ahụ na-esonyere ya na nnukwu ọnwụ mmadụ na ihe onwunwe n'akụkụ abụọ. Ya mere, enweghị mgbagha na ịdị ọcha ọnwụ nke ndị agha Soviet, yana ndị na-efu efu, weghaara na arụrụ arụ anọ dị nso na Rzhev karịrị ngụkọta mfu nke ndị agha Soviet na Agha Stalingrad. Ọnụ ọgụgụ mfu maka ọnwa asaa nke agha ọnọdụ agbabeghị agbakọ.

Ọ bụ eziokwu na a ka na-ekewa ụfọdụ n'ime ihe ndị metụtara ntọhapụ nke Rzhev?

 

Svetlana Gerasimova: Nkewa ihe na-emetụta ọ bụghị naanị ihe omume na mpaghara nke Rzhev-Vyazma salient. Kedu mgbe a ga-ewepụ ha? Ekwesịrị ịza ajụjụ a na Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, akwụkwọ niile bụ ihe onwunwe ha. Ha na-ekwu maka okwu nzuzo na afọ 75. Oge a agwụlarị maka akwụkwọ 1942, ma ọnụ ọgụgụ dị ukwuu n'ime ha na-anọgide na-enweghị ike ịnweta onye nyocha.

Ọ ga-amasị m ịnụ ntule gị maka ọrụ ncheta Rzhev.

Svetlana Gerasimov: Naanị ihe dị mma. Ọzọkwa, n'afọ ndị 1970 na 1980, ndị sonyere n'ọgụ a na bridgehead, ka dị ndụ, rọrọ nrọ maka Ncheta Rzhev.

Nchịkọta nke onyinye ọha na eze na-aga n'ihu na webụsaịtị gọọmentị nke RVIO.

 

Chọrọ ịmatakwu gbasara Union State? Debanye aha na akụkọ anyị na netwọk mmekọrịta.


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