Ihe owuwu ụlọ

Ihe owuwu ụlọ

na-ese n'elu mmiri, simenti, wdg; dị ka nkà na ụzụ imewe - nrụrụ (akpọrela, stampụ, extruded profaịlụ, wdg), nkedo, sintered, welded (site na agbaze, mgbawa, mgbasa bonding, wdg).

A na-eji ụfọdụ ihe eji arụ ọrụ, dị ka ígwè na aluminom alloys, dị ka ihe owuwu ụlọ na, n'ụzọ ọzọ, n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ, a na-eji ihe owuwu ụlọ, dị ka ihe gbasiri ike, na-arụ ọrụ nhazi.

Ndị isi otu nke ihe nhazi

The teknuzu na aku na uba parameters nke structural ihe na-agụnye: nkà na ụzụ parameters - workability nke ọla site nrụgide, ịcha, nkedo Njirimara (mmiri, ọchịchọ na-etolite na-ekpo ọkụ cracks n'oge nkedo), weldability, solderability, hardening ọnụego na fluidity nke polymeric ihe na nkịtị na elu. okpomọkụ, wdg; ndị na-egosi arụmọrụ akụ na ụba (ọnụahịa, oke ọrụ, ụkọ, ọnụ ọgụgụ eji ígwè eme ihe, wdg) [1] .

Ihe eji arụ ọrụ

All structural ihe na-tumadi kewara n'ime dara na ndị na-abụghị ọla, nke n'aka nke ya nwere ike kewaa n'ime otu nwere yiri Njirimara na ngwa (Fig. 9.1).

Osikapa. 9.1. Ndị isi otu nke ihe nhazi

Ndokwa izugbe. Ihe eji arụ ọrụ (igwe na ihe owuwu) nke na-aghọta ibu ike ka a na-akpọ ihe nhazi. The ekpebi parameters nke ndị dị otú ahụ ihe bụ n'ibu Njirimara - iguzogide mkpakọ, erughị ala, ekwe ọrụ, ntachi obi n'okpuru vibration ibu, wdg, nke na-ekewa ha na ndị ọzọ teknuzu ihe (optical, insulating, lubricating, paintwork, decorative, abrasive, wdg). .

Ruo ogologo oge n'ime mmepe ya, ihe a kpọrọ mmadụ na-eji ihe dị ole na ole maka ngwá ọrụ na ịchụ nta, arịa, ọla, na ihe ndị ọzọ: osisi, nkume, eriri osisi na anụmanụ, ụrọ esiri esi, iko, ọla, na ígwè. Mana mmụba nke teknụzụ n'oge ọ bụla nke mmepe gosipụtara ihe ọhụrụ, ihe dị mgbagwoju anya chọrọ maka ihe eji arụ ọrụ (nkwụsi ike okpomọkụ, nguzogide iyi, nrụpụta eletrik, wdg). Dị ka ihe atụ, ihe e kere eke nke uzuoku engines, esịtidem combustion engines, eletriki igwe na ụgbọala chọrọ ihe na-aghaghị na-arụ ọrụ n'okpuru mgbagwoju alternating ibu, elu okpomọkụ, wdg Na isi structural ihe bụ metal alloys dabeere na ígwè (nkedo ígwè na ígwè). ọla kọpa (ọla na ọla), ndu na tin. Na ụlọ ọrụ ụgbọ elu, isi ihe achọrọ etinyere na ihe owuwu bụ ike dị elu dị elu; ụgbọ mmiri chọrọ nchara na alloys nwere ezigbo weldability na nnukwu nguzogide corrosion, na injinịa kemịkalụ - na nguzogide dị elu na ogologo oge na gburugburu ebe ike ike. Nnyocha sayensị na ngalaba nke nanomaterials na nanotechnologies bụ otu n'ime ihe kacha pụta ìhè nke sayensị ọgbara ọhụrụ. Ihe ndị a nke narị afọ XXI. na-esiwanye ike na ụlọ ọrụ. Nnyocha sayensị na ngalaba nke nanomaterials na nanotechnologies bụ otu n'ime ihe kacha pụta ìhè nke sayensị ọgbara ọhụrụ. Ihe ndị a nke narị afọ XXI. na-esiwanye ike na ụlọ ọrụ. Nnyocha sayensị na ngalaba nke nanomaterials na nanotechnologies bụ otu n'ime ihe kacha pụta ìhè nke sayensị ọgbara ọhụrụ. Ihe ndị a nke narị afọ XXI. na-esiwanye ike na ụlọ ọrụ.

A na-ekewa ihe ndị na-emepụta ihe na-abụghị nke ọla site na ihe mejupụtara isomeric, imewe nkà na ụzụ (pịa, kpara akpa, ọnya, akpụzi, wdg), site na ụdị ihe ndị na-emepụta ihe (ihe ndị na-eme ka ọ dị ike) na site na ọdịdị nke ntinye na nhazi ha.

Dịka ọmụmaatụ, a na-amata alloy metal: site na usoro alloy - ígwè dabeere na ígwè na-abụghị nke ígwè; site na nhazi nhazi - na ígwè, brass, bronze, silumin, wdg; site na ụdị hardening - siri ike, mma, ígwè

isi ihe owuwu ihe

isi ihe owuwu ihe

ụdị ihe owuwu ihe

Njirimara ihe owuwu

Njirimara ihe owuwu

ụdị ihe owuwu ihe

Njirimara ihe owuwu

Ndị a bụ ihe ndị sitere na akụkụ nke ihe owuwu (igwe na ihe owuwu) nke na-aghọta ibu ike ma bụrụ ndị a na-amata site na nguzogide iyi.
Nickel na cobalt alloys na-ejigide ike ha na 1000-1100ºC ma gbazee na vacuum-arc, plasma, na electron-beam oven (lee Plasmatron, teknụzụ plasma, teknụzụ Electron-beam). A na-eji ihe ndị a na-eme ihe na ụgbọ elu na ụgbọ elu rọketi, turbines, wdg. Magnesium alloys na-eji na-ewu ụgbọ elu, na akpakanamde ụlọ ọrụ, na textiles na-ebipụta ụlọ ọrụ, wdg Titanium alloys, nke na-pụrụ iche site karịsịa elu kpọmkwem ike na corrosion iguzogide, na-eji ụgbọ elu, chemical ụlọ ọrụ, ọgwụ. Alloys achọtawokwa ngwa na alaka dị iche iche nke nkà na ụzụ. dabere na ọla kọpa, zinc, molybdenum, zirconium, chromium, beryllium.
Ihe eji arụ ụlọ gụnyere ọtụtụ akara nchara. A na-enweta ígwè na ndị ntụgharị, ọkụ ọkụ na ọkụ eletrik, yana site na usoro nke electroslag remelting (lee nkedo), mkpochapụ, wdg. A na-ejikarị ígwè arụ ọrụ eme ihe na-arụ ọrụ maka ịmepụta akwa akwa, crankshafts, Gears, cylinders of Ingine combustion n'ime, wdg.
Teknụzụ ọgbara ọhụrụ na-aga n'ihu na-achọ ihe ọhụrụ. Ya mere, dịka ọmụmaatụ, iji belata ibu nke ụgbọ elu, a na-eji ihe owuwu multilayer eme ihe, nke na-egbuke egbuke n'otu oge, siri ike na nke siri ike. Ọtụtụ mpaghara teknụzụ chọrọ ihe ndị na-ejikọta ike nhazi ya na ọkụ eletrik dị elu, mkpuchi ọkụ, ngwa anya na ihe ndị ọzọ.
N'ọdịnihu, otu n'ime ụzọ maka inweta ihe nhazi ihe dị irè ga-abụ nchịkọta ha buru ibu site na ihe ndị nwere njedebe, ya bụ, ike dị oke egwu, nke na-adịghị mma, na-ekpo ọkụ na-ekpo ọkụ, wdg. A na-akpọ ihe ndị dị otú ahụ mejupụtara. N'ime mmepụta ha, a na-eji ihe ndị siri ike (fibers, threads, whiskers, refractory compounds, wdg, na-eme nkwado ma ọ bụ ihe mkpuchi), jikọtara ya na matrix nke ihe na-adịgide adịgide na ductile (metal alloys or polymeric material). Ngwakọta agwakọta n'ihe gbasara ike dị iche iche nwere ike ịbụ 50-100% karịa ígwè ma ọ bụ aluminom alloys ma nye 20-50% ego nchekwa na ịdị arọ nhazi. Ya mere, ugbu a, a na-akwụ ụgwọ nlebara anya pụrụ iche maka mmepụta nke ihe nhazi na imeziwanye àgwà ha.
Ndị na-abụghị ọla structural ihe na-agụnye plastik, thermoplastic polymers, ceramics, refractories, wdg Plastics dabeere thermosetting, epoxy, phenolic resins na fluoroplastics, mesikwuru (ike) na iko, quartz, asbestos na ndị ọzọ emep uta eri, na-eji na-ewu ụgbọ elu. , rọketi, ike na igwe ụgbọ njem. Thermoplastic polymer ihe - polystyrenes, polyamides, fluoroplasts - na-eji na akụkụ nke eletriki na redio ngwá ọrụ, wdg A na-eme akụkụ ndị na-arụ ọrụ na okpomọkụ dị elu site na ihe seramiiki. A na-eji rọba na-adabere na rọba dị iche iche, nke a na-eji akwa ụdọ kwadoro, maka mmepụta taya ma ọ bụ wiil monolithic maka ụgbọ elu na ụgbọ ala.
Mgbe ị na-emepụta ụgbọ elu, a chọrọ ike dị elu kpọmkwem site na ihe nhazi; A na-eji plastik (plywood), ígwè ndị dị ala, aluminum na magnesium alloys eme ihe n'ọtụtụ ebe. Mmepe ọzọ nke teknụzụ ụgbọ elu mere ka e mepụta ihe ọhụrụ na-eguzogide okpomọkụ na-adabere na nickel na cobalt, titanium, aluminum, magnesium alloys, kwesịrị ekwesị maka ịrụ ọrụ ogologo oge na okpomọkụ dị elu.
Site na nkwalite nke teknụzụ, ihe ndị a chọrọ maka ihe nhazi na-aghọwanye mgbagwoju anya. N'ihi ya, ụgbọ mmiri chọrọ nchara na alloys nke ọma weldable na corrosion eguzogide, ebe kemịkalụ chọrọ nguzogide elu na ogologo oge na gburugburu ebe ike ike. Ike nuklia na-eji ihe nhazi nke, n'ihu ike, ga-egbo ihe ọzọ a chọrọ - obere akụkụ nke neutron jidere cross.
Oge echekwara: 20221028080432


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